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1.Government initiative of post Sendai Declaration

  • The plan termed as ‘Sendai Framework’ was adopted during the 3rd UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, in Japanese city of Sendai in 2015

  • India has successfully hosted the Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (AMCDRR) and adopted ‘New Delhi Declaration’ and ‘Regional Action Plan for implementation of the Sendai Framework’.

  • The outcomes of the AMCDRR will guide the implementation of the Sendai Framework in Asia and the Pacific.

  • National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is strengthened in terms of state-of-the-art training and equipment. The conference also commemorated the first World Tsunami Awareness Day to spread awareness on tsunami.

  • Government has approved the creation of National Disaster Response Reserve (NDRR) through a revolving fund of Rs. 250 crore to be operated by the NDRF.

  • The government expressed to share India’s expertise and help other countries in disaster response as it did during Japan Earthquake in 2011 and Nepal earthquake of 2015.

  • The government is making efforts to promote regional cooperation by hosting the SAARC Disaster Management Centre to reduce disaster risks in the region and  promoting knowledge sharing among the SAARC countries.

  • In an effort to augment capacity building, National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) has signed a MoU with JNU for financial assistance and academic   cooperation for establishment of Centre for Excellence in Disaster Research and Resilience Building at JNU.

  • The Government has implemented the recommendations of 14th Finance Commission and allocated funds towards State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF).

  • The Sendai framework calls upon private sector to be involved in disaster preparedness and mitigation.


1.1. Disaster Management efforts at National and International Level:

  • Sendai Framework was adopted during the 3rd UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction.

  • It consists of four major priority areas and seven targets to be met by 2030 which is to prevent creation of new disaster risks and also to substantially reduce disaster risks.

  • The four priority areas include:

  • a) To Understanding Risk factors;

  • b) Strengthening Risk Governance

  • c) To Invest in disaster resilience;

  • d) To Improve capacities for disaster response

  • The Sendai Framework has set targets for substantial reduction in losses including reduction in number of deaths, number of people affected by disasters, economic losses and infrastructure losses.

  • SDG goals that target on disaster risk resilience

  • a) Goal 1- Ending poverty in all its form

  • b) Goal 2- Ending hunger, achieving food security and promoting sustainable agriculture

  • c) Goal 3- Ensuring healthy lives

  • d) Goal 4- Ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education

  • e) Goal 9- Building resilient Infrastructure

  • f) Goal 11- Making cities and human settlement safe, resilient and sustainable

  • g) Goal 13- Combating climate change and its impacts

  • h) Goal 15- Reversing land degradation


United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC)

  • a) The United Nations Disaster Assessment And Coordination (UNDAC) is part of the international emergency response system for sudden-onset emergencies.

  • b) It is designed to help the United Nations and governments of disaster-affected countries during the first phase of a sudden-onset emergency.

  • c) The office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) at the request of the government affected by a disaster dispatches a UNDAC team to the country within 12 to 48 hours anywhere in the world


1.2. Prime minister’s Ten point Agenda disaster risk reduction outlined at AMCDRR

  • To ensure that all development projects are built to appropriate disaster resilient standard and contribute to the resilience of communities

  • Encourage greater involvement and leadership of women in disaster management

  • Work towards risk coverage for all- starting from poor households to small and medium enterprises to multi-national corporation to nation states

  • Invest in risk mapping globally for all hazard

  • Leverage technology to enhance efficiency

  • Development of network of universities to work on disaster issue

  • Utilize the opportunities provided by social media and mobile technologies

  • Build on local capacity and initiative

  • Ensure that opportunity to learn from disaster is not wasted. Establish a facility for technical support to post-disaster reconstruction of houses.

  • Bring about greater cohesion in international response to disaster


Increase the Capacity Building

  • a) The emphasis should not be only on developing human resources, but also on developing the necessary infrastructure and institutional capacity for risk reduction.

  • b) Capacity building cannot be the responsibility of the state alone. As the Sendai framework puts it aptly, we need an all-of-society approach.

  • c) Capacity building programmes should be formulated based on the needs assessment. After identifying the gaps in capacity of different stakeholders, training programmes should be developed.


National Policy and Plan for Capacity Building

  • a) The National Policy for Disaster Management and the National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) identifies the themes for capacity building which include prevention and mitigation for risk reduction; effective preparedness and response; and recovery and build back better.


Institutional Arrangements

  • a) The primary responsibility for disaster management lies with the state governments. The local self governments also have a major role to play. The role of central government is supportive and supplementary.

  • b) The overall coordination of disaster management vests with the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). The Cabinet Committee on Security (CSS) and the National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) are the key committees involved in the top level decision making with regard to disaster management.

  • c) The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) lays down the policies, plans and guidelines for disaster management.

  • d) The National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project aims to empower the governments, the communities at large, particularly women.

  • e) The National School Safety Programme is to build capacity of students and teachers for better preparedness.

  • f) National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) undertakes training, research and development of national level information base.

  • g) NIDM strives to emerge as a ‘Centre of Excellence’ in the field of Disaster Management.


Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (AMCDRR) 2016

  • This first Asian Ministerial Conference for Disaster Risk Reduction after the advent of the Sendai Framework was hosted by the Government of India in November 2016.

  • As a follow-up from the 6th Asian Ministerial Conference outcome (2014) and as a requirement of the Sendai Framework, the intended outcome of the conference in India was to adopt an ‘Asia Regional Plan for Implementation of the Sendai Framework’.

  • The AMCDRR 2016 provided a unique opportunity to shape the implementation and monitoring of the Sendai Framework in Asia.

  • Established in 2005, the AMCDRR is a biennial conference jointly organized by different Asian countries and the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR).

  • The next AMCDRR will be held in Monglia in 2018 The two important documents – ‘New Delhi Declaration’ and the ‘Asian Regional Plan for Implementation of the Sendai Framework’

  • Asian Regional Plan for Implementation of the Sendai Framework

  • Disasters are intertwined with development in a three-dimensional nexus

  • Disasters eat away hard earned gains of development of years and decades.

  • Lack of development exposes vulnerable communities to the risks of disasters.

  • Development creates new risks of disasters, such as houses and infrastructure without compliance of zoning and building regulations are vulnerable; mining and industries in ecologically sensitive zones may destroy the natural buffer to disasters, while fossil fuel based production and consumption enhance risks of climate related disasters.


Challenges and Opportunities

  • India has put in place legal and institutional mechanisms at various levels and deployed scientific and technological capabilities for disaster risk management.

  • However similar results were not seen in hydrological disasters like floods or cloudbursts

  • Technological disasters like industrial or road accidents continue to spiral; threats of biological disasters like epidemics and pandemics loom large, while environmental disasters like depleting water resources and rising level of air pollution in rapidly growing urban settlements are causes of major concerns.

  • Initiatives which provides opportunities for planning, designing and implementing the development projects and contribute to the process of mitigating the risks of disasters

  • Digital India

  • Make in India

  • Skill India

  • Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

  • Smart Cities Mission

  • Implementation of the Sendai Framework in conjunction with the SDGs and Paris Climate Agreement provide opportunities for addressing neglected but challenging tasks of disaster risk management in India.


2. Disaster management

  • Disaster adopted by UN which also has been coopted in National Act of DM 2005, Disaster is as serious disruption of a community or a society functioning, causing widespread human, material, economic and or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.


2.1. National Disaster Response Force

  • types of natural as well as manmade disasters and to mitigate the effects of disasters.  Aftermath of 2004 Tsunami disaster, Disaster management Act was enacted.  The specialised force to tackle the disaster is needed.  So, NDRF comprising of 8 battalions (two battalions from each BSF, CRPF, ITBP and CISF) is raised in 2010 two battalions (one form CRPF and BSF) and in 2015 two more form SSB inducted and now it contains 12 battalions.  It is under the control of Ministry of Home Affairs.


Functions of NDRF

  • Provide specialized response for rescue and relief in case of disasters - natural or manmade.

  • Deployment in case of impending disaster

  • Assistance of civil authorities in distribution of relief material during/after disaster.

  • Co-ordination with other agencies engaged in rescue/relief work.

  • United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC)

  • The United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) is part of the international emergency response system for sudden-onset emergencies.

  • It is designed to help the United Nations and governments of disaster-affected countries during the first phase of a sudden-onset emergency.

  • The office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) at the request of the government affected by a disaster dispatches a UNDAC team to the country within 12 to 48 hours anywhere in the world.


3. Risk management and effect of disasters on development:

  • Disaster risk management means that the underlying hazards and vulnerabilities, natural or anthropogenic, are assessed scientifically and necessary measures are taken to prevent the creation of risks.

  • Disaster preparedness means getting prepared for responding to disasters effectively as and when it strikes so that lives can be saved and human suffering reduced to the maximum extent possible through measures like evacuation, search and rescue and humanitarian assistance like shelter and relief.

  • Preparedness further means having policies, strategies, and resources in place for building back better livelihoods, houses and infrastructures devastated during disasters.

  • Disaster risk management has assumed critical importance for sustainable development as damage and losses due to disasters are spiraling despite plethora of measures taken to reduce such losses.


3.1. Disaster and Development:

  • Disasters are intertwined with development in a three-dimensional nexus.

  • Disasters eat away hard earned gains of development of years and decades.

  • Lack of development exposes vulnerable communities to the risks of disasters.

  • Development creates new risks of disasters, such as houses and infrastructure without compliance of zoning and building regulations are vulnerable; mining and industries in ecologically sensitive zones may destroy the natural buffer to disasters.

Chemical disasters:

  • The Indian chemical industry through its performance and potential has contributed to 2.11% of the country’s GDP

  • Chemical disasters may arise at any stage of the process life cycle such as commissioning, storage, manufacturing, maintenance, disposal and transportation etc.

  • The release of toxic chemicals can cause irreparable damage that can last long to people as well as to the environment.

  • The Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) is the nodal ministry for management of chemical disasters and National Disaster Management Authority has prepared guidelines for disaster management plans.


Causative Factors:

  • Ageing of process plant and inadequate steps to pace with modern technologies has increased vulnerability to chemical disasters

  • During transportation, storage and processing due to number of reasons such as temperature and pressure deviations, mixing of incompatible materials, catastrophic rupture of reactors, storage vessel leak

  • Organic solvents are the most common sources of fires and explosions in chemical industry

  • A majority of industrial accidents due to human error as a result of non compliance of standard operating procedures (SOP) that have been put into place by company

  • Defect in design can also be a cause for chemical disaster

  • Absence of SOP to mitigate early warning in the process

  • Poor coordination between different departments with the chemical company

  • Increasing threat of terrorist activities

  • Natural disaster such as floods and earthquakes

  • Improper maintenance of equipment

  • Non-availability of an emerging response team to mitigate accident during the transportation of hazardous chemical have resulted in major disasters

  • Hazardous waste disposal needs special attention


Prevention and response:

Role of Industry:

  • a) Identification of Hazardous activities A knowledgeable and dedicated team of qualified professionals to evaluate the hazards and risks arising is essential.

  • b) Maintenance of the plant facility and equipment-Proper maintenance of all the equipment and machinery need to be carried out at regular intervals to ensure that the plant facility is safe.

  • c) Installation of Vapour / gas detection System-Installation of gas / vapour detection system with alarms to detect leak even at micro levels would ensure that the leaks are attended at the early stages.

  • d) Compliance with existing rules and regulations-Various rules and regulations of the state and centre should be strictly adhered for a sustainable and safe process.

  • e) Development of human resource management-A good human resource management must be setup by the industry comprising of the top most officials to improve the safety systems in the chemical industry.

  • f) Emergency preparedness-The industry must have a good emergency response team that can react swiftly to mitigate disasters.


Role of Government:

  • a) Setting up accident investigation board and chemical accident database-An online portal would help industries tackle a wide range of concerns from experts around the world that would help in preventing any unforeseen conditions arising out of the plant operation.

  • b) Awareness campaign-The government can provide awareness regarding the hazards arising out a chemical disaster to the workers as well as the public.

  • c) Research and Development-R&D initiative to newer technologies that can minimise the toxicity of the by-products of chemical industries can be carried out by the government.

  • d) Transportation of Hazardous Chemicals-Recently Indian Chemical Council (ICC) has initiated a programme called “Nicerglobe” which provide GPRS tracking of trucks right from its origin to the place of destination.


Role of Public:

  • a) A general awareness of the risk associated with any chemical accident would help in reducing the outcome of the accident.

  • b) A mutual aid group can be setup to organise the general public in case of any disaster and provide training and awareness about the potential actions to be taken in case of any chemical leakage.


Biological Disaster:

  • Biological disasters define the devastating effects caused by an enormous spread of a disease, virus or infestations of plant, animal or insect life on an epidemic or pandemic level.

  • Epidemic- level biological disasters affect large numbers of people within a given community or area

  • Pandemic- level biological disasters affect a much larger region, sometimes spanning entire continents or the globe.

  • Biological Disasters are mainly of 3 types: Infections; Allergy; Poisoning

  • Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, refers to biological substances or organic matters produced by parasites, viruses, bacteria, fungi and protein that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans.

  • Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is the nodal ministry for handling epidemics, decision making, advisory body and emergency medical relief provider.

  • Biological Warfare (BW) also known as germ warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.

  • Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) is the nodal ministry for BW and partners with Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in its management.


Roles and responsibility of  WHO

  • a) Strengthening national surveillance programmes.

  • b) Disseminating verified information on outbreaks of diseases, and also by providing technical support for response.

  • c) Collecting, analysing and disseminating information on diseases likely to cause epidemics of global importance.

  • Occupation and workplace where people come into contact with biological hazards

  • a) Medical staff, cleaning staff etc.

  • b) Healthcare services

  • c) Cleaning services and property management

  • d) Employees in environmental hygiene services

  • e) Agriculture, fishery, veterinary services & manufacturing services

  • f) Indoor workplaces with central air conditioning

  • Preventive and Control measures at workplaces:

  • a) Elimination of the source of contamination is fundamental to the prevention and control of biological hazards.

  • b) Engineering controls-improvement of ventilation, partial isolation of the contamination source and the use of ultraviolet lamps can help contain the spread.

  • c) Personal hygiene-washing hands before and after work is the simplest and most basic method to avoid infection.

  • d) Personal protection-The employees must use personal protective equipment and adhere strictly to the practice of personal hygiene.

  • e) Sterilization is the process using heat or high pressure to eliminate bacteria and microorganisms to ensure that employees would not be harmed through exposurein the risk area.

  •  f) Respiratory protection- surgical mask, powered air purifying respirator

  • Prevention of Biological Disasters:

  •  a) Vulnerability Analysis and Risk Assessment.

  •  b) Environmental Management

  •  i. Safe water supply and proper maintenance of sewage pipeline

  • ii. Necessary awareness should be created in the community about the importance of personal hygiene.

  • iii. Vector control programmes like elimination of breeding places, regular spraying of insecticides, keeping a watch on rodent population and disposal of the dead    bodies.


Elements of Disaster Management:

  • A typical disaster management continuum comprises six elements

  • a) Pre Disaster Phase:

  • Prevention

  • Mitigation

  • Preparedness

  • b) Post disaster phase

  • Response

  • Rehabilitation

  • Reconstruction

Yojana January 2017

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