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1. Animal Husbandry

  • Animal husbandry is an art of breeding and rearing animals for the benefit of human society. Rearing of animals is an old age practice of Indian culture to made settlement . Ancient monuments and findings from excavations have proved intense relation between animals and humans.The ancient symbols of prestige and power had been mostly decorated in form of animal sculpture which denotes their cultural worth.

  • Animal husbandry is to breeding cattle or dairy cows, buffalo, chicken, goats, pigs, horses and sheep. Today, even animals like donkeys, mules, rabbits and insects like bees are raised as part of it.

  • Different phases of cultural revolutions have seen animals embossing their importance through their contribution in human livelihood.


The rearing of animals can be classified into three types:

1.Mixed Livestock Farming

  • Mixed livestocks farming involves agriculture and animals together as a principle of co-existence.Its highly popularised amongst Indian farmers Cows  are used for tillage and providing manure to agriculture. In return, the animals get crop residues as feed, care and shelter.


2.Migratory Livestock Farming

  • In this system of livestock farming is used in ancient history,The natural resources in form of pastures and grass are used to feed animals. Due  to declining of natural grasslands and limited monsoon, this method is slowly declining.


3.Organized Livestock Farming

  • Organized Livestock Farming is a modern method where animals are reared with specialised purpose. all amenities required for well-being of animal are privided in scientific manner.animals are managed in intensive or semi-intensive housing by providing balanced ration to increase productivity.


1.1. Importance of Animal Husbandry


Food security

  • Food security It makes important contribution to food security and poverty reduction for many low-income rural families but many countries have been unsuccessful to serve the needs of poorest households and include them in development


Poverty reduction and self employment

  • Poverty and livestock management Livestock supports 25% of gross value added in agriculture sector.IT Provides self-employment to millions.From equity and livelihood standpoints, livestock rearing must be central to the poverty lessening programmers. It has been draught power, manure, employment, household income and export incomes. Thus while assessing inclusive growth, it should be considered from equity and livelihood perspective.


Women Empowerment

  •  Livestock rearing at household level is a women-led activity. Income from livestock rearing and decisions related to management of livestock are mainly taken by women.This has led to increased empowerment as well as decision making capacity of the women.


Environmental impact

  •  Animal agriculture responsible for 20-33% of all fresh water consumption in world today. It is leading cause of species extinction, ocean dead zones, water pollution and habitat destruction. In addition to monumental habitat destruction caused by clearing forests and converting land to grow feed crops and for animal grazing, predators and ‘competition’ of species are frequently targeted and hunted because of perceived threat to livestock profits.


Climate change

  • It is responsible for 65% of all human-related emissions of nitrous oxide- a GHG with 296 times global warming potential of C02 and stays in atmosphere for 150 years.Livestock and their products account for at least 32,000 million tons of C02 per year of 51% of all worldwide GHGs. Agriculture contributes significantly to emissions of non-Co2 GHGs such as methane and nitrous oxide.  Hence it is necessary to mitigate it through using gas produced from manure from energy production (biogas).A global analysis of livestock sector by UNFAO reflected that


Natural resource degradation

  • Livestock producers, including traditional pastoralists and small holders, are both victims of natural resource degradation. Remedial action lies in mix of public goods related to environmental protection, ecosystem services and private investments to improve animal productivity.


Human health risks

  • Animal health services have been widely ignored in the world and has led to institutional flaws which leads to poor delivery of animal health services.Animal health services not only combat animal diseases that cause mortality and reduce animal productivity, they also shield human health because of risk of animal to human disease transmission.

  • Indian livestock industry makes up for significant amount of world’s livestock resources. Both national economy and socio-economic growth of India is backed by livestock sector. It offers great potential and outstanding contribution in agriculture sector. Livestock sector is performing well in production, value addition and export of dairy, fishery, wool, poultry and other products. Challenges associated with social taboos, unorganized livestock market need to be addressed and tap into global market opportunities.


1.2. Governement initiatives

Providing Credit facilities:

  • Easy and hassle free credit facilities must be made available to farmers and persons who rearing animals. Animals itself may be considered as an asset to sanction the smooth loon to farmers, provided that animals should be insured with an legal agency.


Crops breeding Ceiling:

  • Indiscriminate and unscientific breeding practices must be stopped. As the cross bred population are prone to diseases, Ceiling must be there to check the population.


Providing animal ration cards:

  • Granting an animal ration card. The to the licencesed animal rearer must be concentrated feed must be available to them at subsidised rate.


Nakul Swastiya Patra:

  • Recently GOI launched “Nakul Swastiya Patra” / animal Health cards. To avoid complications this must be maintained by every licensed animal owner.


Extension services in vertinary field : 

  • Improved skills and latest technological interventions for animal management should reach the farmers door step easily.


R & D in organic livestock Farming:

  • The methods for organic livestock farming must be devised and the animal husbandry industry should move on that scale for future generation to be healthy and disease free.


Enhancing the Special Economic zones:

  • The special economic zone for animal husbandry with common facilities must be created for greater export potential


Licensing for animal rearing:

  • The animal keepers should be issued licences, so that, the population of animals can be tracked and policies can be formulated according to that.


Rejuvenating the Natural Pastures lands and Grasslands:

  • Rejuvenation of overgrazed postures, provision of micro irrigation with solar energy management will surely boost up fodder production


2. Bee Keeping

  • Beekeeping is an agro based activity. Collecting and rearing of bees being undertaken by farmers/landless laborers/Marginal farmers in rural areas as an integrated farming practice. Though honeybees are best known for the honey they produce, their economic role in nature is to pollinate thousands of flowering plants and assure setting or seed or fruit. Thus, honeybees have a vital role in sustaining plants biodiversity resulting into environmental sustainability.


2.1. Beekeeping Industry


  • Honeybee colonies maintained all over world  15 countries account for 90% of world production  Per capita consumption is 250-300gms. Germany has highest of >2000gms as it is considered as food.  Japan has highest consumption of 600 gms in Asia.



  • There are 30 lakhs colonies in India Annual production of 89000 metric tonnes of honey One of the major exporting countries in India Major markets are Germany, USA, UK, Japan, France, Italy etc.

  • India produces two types of honey

  • o Apiary honey- domesticated bees

  • o Squeezed honey- wild bees

  • In India, honey is not used as form of food as its per capita consumption per year is 10gms approx


Beekeeping Industry Benefits

  • Bee Keeping providing the  Self-employment to rural and forest based population

  • Bee keeping giving the opportunity of Production of honey, pollen, beeswax, royal jelly, venom ,Royal jellys and  Hive products.

  • As bee products are used in food or pharmaceuticals, hygienic collection, handling, processing, storage and maintaining of National and International purity standards are of prime importance No need of sophisticated technology, high capital investment or infrastructure

  • Promoting sustainable and eco-friendly agriculture and reduce the deforestation and promotes the biodiversity conservaton

  • Employment to rural educated youth in collecting, processing and marketing of bees/beehive products which eliminates the poverty. And also enhance the cottage industry


Challenges in bee keeping industry

  • Cross-pollination of various agricultural and horticultural crops, improving their quality and increasing their yields.

  • Wide Gap between technical knowledge for efficient management of bee colonies for higher yield.

  • Lack of awareness, skills ,infrastructure,Scientific knowledge in bee keeping industry because mostly illiterate and tribal peoples are conducting bee keeping business.

  • Indiscriminate use of pesticides, insecticides, weedicides insecticides, mono culture of cropping pattern like practices also pose a grave threat to bee keeping industry

  • Absence of institutional support like extension service guidance, bank loans etc.

  • Impact of global warming varies the behavior and life cycle of bees depend on climatic floristic conditions which vary from place to place.

  • Proper utilization of natural resources, encouraging biodiversity and ecological awareness.


Role in Rural Development

  •  Till mid-20th century, honeybees were meant to produce only honey and beeswax. However, in past 3-4 decades, utilizing honeybees to pollinate large number of agricultural and horticultural crops to increase per acre yield has become a routine practice in many developed countries.  Increasingly being realized that bees could be less expensive input for promoting sustainable and eco-friendly agriculture and enhancing crop productivity


Government initiatives/programmes

  • Post-independence Planning revived various traditional village industries

  • In 2005, beekeeping became part of National Horticulture Mission

  • Government established Separate board for the cottage industry like bee keeping All India Khadi and Village Industries Board in 1954. National Bee Board formed in 2000. Aim to act as Nodal agency for formulation, implementation, execution, monitoring of projects in beekeeping field.

  • All India Coordinated Research Project on Honeybee Research and Training by ICAR & SAUs.

  • Central Scheme ‘Development of Beekeeping for Improving Crop Productivity’ during VIII Plan and XI Plan. Subsumed under Macro Management Scheme in 2000. Focus on beekeeping diminished under such arrangement..


3. Poultry Development In Rural India

  • India is 3rd largest egg producer in world and 5th largest in broiler It is one of the fastest growing segment of agriculture in India. It is one of the most organized sector in animal agricultureThough agricultural production has been rising at rate of 1.5-2% per annum, eggs and broilers have been rising at 8-10%.Eggs and chicken are accepted by all communities and are available at the most reasonable prices. There is scope for enhancing the production


3.1. Types of Chicken

  • Layer chicken: Layer Chicken mainly reared for Egg Production

  • Broiler chicken: Broiler Chicken mainly reared for meat consumption.



  • Success in end product distribution rationalised price of breeder and commercial stock feed manufacturing mills have increased . Better breeding of birds leading to better stock performance Emergence of competition in the breeder and commercial layer markets



  • indian eggs are cheapest in world  and nutritious .government policies related to investments in poultry and related industries are favorable to increase in income generation in rural poor and marginal farmers. consumer awareness and acceptability as good source of protein. concept of 'organic chicken'- in india , chicken is traditionally raised in backyard. Inclusion of eggs in the government schemes like mid day meals also promote this industry.



  • Indian poultry system had poor export infrastructure. Government policies relating to investments in poultry and related industries, taxation,import duties, excise duties are favourable. More competition between international players on opening up duty free imports, lifting of trade barriers occurrence of diseases in meat many countries protecting their industries from foreign competition. Increased awareness and demonstrations by of animal rights by animal activists. Consumer awareness and acceptability of eggs and chicken as good and cheap source of protein and healthy food is increasing.

  • As poultry industry is among fastest growing in world, it needs greater integration, better cost effectiveness and improvement in distribution. Poultry in India needs good branding system in order to increase consumption, especially chicken,Avoiding diseases like salmonella and other diseases in poultry meat and enhance the antibiotics.


4. Sericulture

  • It is one of the most unique animal product which has emerged stronger amongst various textile fibres to retain its unique position. Sericulture is the mass scale rearing of sericigenous insects in order to obtain silk



  • o Cultivation of silkworm food plants

  • o Rearing of silkworms for cocoon production

  • o Reeling the cocoons for unwinding silk filament

  • o Other post cocoon processes such as twisting, dyeing, weaving, printing and finishing.


Global Silk Scenario

  •  It has undergone sea change over last three to four  decades.Though global mulberry silk production has increased, primary silk producing countries like Japan, France, Italy and Spain have virtually disappeared from silk production scene.  Now India and China are emerging as major silk producing countries as global demand for silk is growing by 2-3%.Wider scope exists for horizontal and vertical expansion of textile sector considering the merits of mulberry silk industry, the ever increasing demand for silk, abundant availability of natural resources and manpower, development of suitable package of practices for mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing


Silk production in India

  • After post independence silk production increased through the five year plans.In india silk production  has grown 29% to reach 20478 MT in 2015-16.In india Mulberry sericulture dominates in quality of production, quantity and popularity.Sericulture involves both on-farm and non-farm activities ,Increasing the coccon depends on productivity levels of breed, quality of mulberry leaf, production and suppply of disease free layings, adoption of advanced rearing technoliges and climatic conditions


Status of Indian Silk Production

  •  India is the second largest producer of silk in world after china. It is also largest consumer of silk in world. It is the only country that produces all 5 varieties of silk on commercial scale.  It holds global monopoly for production of famed golden ‘muga silk’. Major mulberry silk producing states are- Karnataka, AP, WB, TN and J&K accounting 96% of India’s total mulberry raw silk production. Except Gujarat and Rajasthan, almost all Indian states are involved in production of one or other variety of silk.


Mulberry Silk Production in India

  • In the mulberry silk production the silkworm solely feeds on mulberry plant.Completely domesticated and reared indoors. Its classified into Japanese, Chinese, European or Indian origin .silk production based on number of generations in a year, classified into univoltine, bivoltine, multivoltine predominantly rural and small-farm based post coccon activities in cottage and small industry Cultivation the quality of mulberry leaf and cultivation technologies greatly influence health of silkworm larvae this affects the quality and quantity of reeling cocoons produced by farmers


5. White Revolution And Enhancing Milk Productivity

  • India as the leading global milk producer needs to ensure, the availability of clean, pure and nutritious milk to all citizens, attractive returns to milk producers and an efficient and well functioning diary chain Milk is a lacteal secretion obtained by complete milking of one or more healthy milch animals.,


5.1. Equal status:

  • Providing the equal status to diary farming with respect to agriculture. The village level milk producing units must be brought under the organised sector.


Increasing the export:

  • Revoke trade barriers and the specific countries for export must be identified and trade policies must be signed between those countries inorder to boost the exports


Providng easy access to market:

  • The provision of better market access will result in better and remunerative prices which will be helpful in alleviating poverty in rural poor and most vulnerable families and promote sustainable livelihood.


Creating Data Base :

  • India should develop a system to compete with developed countries where every milch animal is tagged with a number and every drop of milk processed, value added, marketed and instantly recorded.


Safety standard meaures:

  • The rigorous safety standards must be devised and implemented in accordance with global level to promote exports.


5.2. Infrasturcture:

  • The environment under which milk is produced, collected, transported, processed and distributed should be fully conducive and that animal rearing processes must be related to sanitation, which must ensure quality of milk.


Organised sector:    

  • The organised diary sector will have to progressively and systematically planned to increase the coverage so that best quality milk can be available at better prices.


Strength to co-opertaives:

  • The co-operatives must be strengthened and expanded. The need to narture diary  entrepreneurs through effective training of rural youths at village level can be easily achieved by these co-operatives.


Cross breeding:

  •  An organised effort to conserve and propagate elite germ plasm from nucleus breeding herds will facilitate poor formers to rear desi cattle more economically.


Improvised Feed management:

  •  Application of technology to produce large scale feed blocks, feed enzymes and other innovative feed resources needs to be deployed for enhancing quality of milk.


Enhance the Vertinary Services:

  • An authentic, updated database for disease is required for identification, onward prevention and control. Infrastructure of vaccine and diagnostic, production units must be increased to address the need of cattle population.


6. Blue Revolution

  • Neel Kranti Mission (Blue revolution) with the vision to improve and sustainable maintenance of fisheries industry. This has led to 11 fold increase that India achieved in fish production in just 6 decades India is bestowed with varied potential resources in form of  Rivers and canals, Floodplain lakes, Ponds and tanks and Reservoirs and brackish water. India is 2nd largest fish producing and aquaculture producing nation in world. It constitutes 6.3% of global fish production and 5% of global trade.

  • The marine potential is estimated at 4.41 million metric tonnes and their activities spread along 8118 km long coastline with 2.02 million of EEZ and continental shelf area of 0.53 million sq.kmThe Vibrancy of the fisheries sector is visible from the transformation from traditional to commercial scale.It has contributed 0.91% to GDP and 5.23% to agricultural GDP.


6.1. Neel Kranti Mission (Blue Revolution)

  •  Transform into modern industry with focus on new technologies. Double the income of fishers and fish farmers focus on increasing productivity and marketing. Triple export earnings by 2020 Fully tap inland and marine sector fish potential and triple production by 2020. Blue revolution provides for focused development and management of fisheries- inland fisheries, aquaculture and marine fisheries including deep sea fishing and mariculture..



  • To double the income of the fishers and fish farmers..To fully tap the total fish potential of the country both in inland and the marine sector and triple the production by 2020. To ensure inclusive participation of the fishers and fish farmers in the income enhancement.To transform the fisheries sector as a modern industry with special forms on new technology and process.


Blue revolution provides convergence with

  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana

  • National Rural Livelihoods Mission

  • Sagarmala project



National Policy on Marine Fisheries, 2016

  •  Based on 5 pillars of sustainable development, principle of subsidiarity, partnerships, intergenerational equity and precautionary approach. Through implementation of NPMF, the marine fisheries sector to become sustainable and well-managed entity.


Grow out Carp culture

  • R&D efforts in last 5 decades have improved average fish yields making carp culture an important economic activity Major Indian carps are Rohu, Catla and Mrigal


Freshwater Prawn culture

  • Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a giant freshwater prawn which is largest and fastest growing species among freshwater prawns. Development of hatchery tech for M. rosenbergii and later, for Indian prawn M. malcomsonni has opened new possibilities for freshwater aquaculture


Catfish culture

  • They have great commercial importance Magur and Singhi are two air-breathing fishes for culture Several other non-air breathing fishes like Pungasius pungasius, walago attu are also being cultured in view of high consumer preference.


Freshwater Pearl culture

  • Research has led to development of base technology of pearl production from freshwater mussel species and has also standardized different steps involves in its production.


Brackish water aquaculture

  • India has huge brackish water resources of over 1.2 million hectares suitable for farming. But total area of farming is just 13% potential water area.  Black tiger prawn contributes maximum in the shrimp production.


Pearl culture

  • Success of marine pearl culture was achieved in 1973. Raft culture techniques are followed for pearl oysters.


Integrated fish culture

  • It is the combination of two or more separate farming.  Here waste from one subsystem is utilized for sustenance of the other.  For example, fish-pig/poultry/duck farming Has enormous scope for generating employment and rural economy


Ornamental fish culture

  • It forms an important commercial component of fisheries with world trade of over US$7 billion  India has over 100 varieties of indigenous and exotic species that are bred in captivity.  Export of ornamental fishes is about Rs. 10 million whereas potential is about US$ 30 million


Seaweed culture

  • Seaweed form important component of marine living organisms.Its Found mostly in shallow seas It is also used as food, fodder, fertilisers and other industrial and pharma products the scope to capture fisheries from coastal water and natural inland waters like rivers and estuaries is limited. Hence, more focus should be on aquaculture and culture based fisheries to meet the targeted fish requirement of 8.3 million tons by 2020


6.2. Cold water fisheries development

  • India has significant water bodies both in Himalayan region and western ghats which hold large population of both indigenous and exotic cultivable cold water species. Mahaseers and Schizothoracids are indigenous and Trouts are important ones among exotic varieties.

Kurukshetra January 2017

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