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1. Smart Border Fence


  • It is a robust and integrated system that is capable of addressing the gaps in the present system of border security by seamlessly integrating human resources, weapons, and high-tech surveillance equipment.

  • It has three main components: o New high-tech surveillance devices such as sensors, detectors, cameras, etc. as well as existing equipment for round-the-clock surveillance of the international border.

  • An efficient and dedicated communication network including fiber optic cables and satellite communication for transmitting data gathered; and

  • A command and control centre to which the data will be transmitted providing a composite picture of the international border.

  • Recently Union Home Minister inaugurated the smart border fencing pilot projects under the comprehensive integrated border management system (CIBMS) programme.

1.1. More on News

  • Smart fencing at the borders is a technological solution devised to address the security issues in the Border States and the two projects in five kilometers areas each have been installed along the Indo-Pak International Border in Jammu on a pilot basis.

  • It has got hi-tech surveillance system that would create an invisible electronic barrier on land, water and even in air and underground.

  • A stretch of 60 kms of Assam’s border with Bangladesh would also in November be provided CIBMS pilot project to stop illegal migration.

  • Ministry has been working towards upgrading border infrastructure, with more than 600km of roads having been built so far.

  • The smart border fencing projects built under the Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) programme is the first of its kind in the country to guard stretches where physical surveillance is not possible either due to inhospitable terrain or riverine borders.

1.2. Role of technology in border management

  • Upgrading existing system: Technology can be integrated with the existing systems to facilitate better detection and interception by the man behind the machine.

  • Checking infiltration: It can be help to detect infiltration via land, underwater, air and tunnels by deploying close-circuit television cameras, thermal imagers and night vision devices, BFSRs, underground monitoring sensors, and laser barriers along the border.

  • Cross Border Trade: It can also facilitate cross border trade. For example: Blockchain technology can help quickly and securely process transactions, it also makes much easier to identify and trace illegitimate trade.

  • Removing Human errors: As there is a limit to the ability of human to remain alert, see and hear, the smart gadgets can be used to enhance human capability. It will help to reduce human error and also stress on the man on ground.

  • Mobility: Advanced technologies in the vehicles can be used around the border areas and improving the functionality of their armored vehicles. Vehicles used by the security personnel are multipurpose, designed to help movement in tough terrains like deserts, no man’s land and mountainous regions.

  • Communication: It can be used for better coordination among various stakeholders, and also between states and the centre. GSAT 7 is the first dedicated military communication satellite built by ISRO that will provide services to the Indian defence forces with the main user being the Indian Navy.

Border protection grid

  • It is set up in Indian states bordering Bangladesh to strengthen Indo-Bangladesh border security in a bid to curb various illegal activities.

  • The grid comprises various elements namely physical barriers, non-physical barriers, surveillance system, intelligence agencies, state police, BSF and other state and central agencies.

  • Surveillance: In order to improve patrolling and surveillance of the coastal areas, especially the shallow areas close to the coast. Drones can be deployed in the most dangerous and rugged circumstances and are made to assist rescue teams and forces.

1.3. Existing Systems at Borders

  • BSF has been provided with night surveillance capabilities such as Passive Night Vision Goggles (PNG), Night Weapon Sights (NWS), Hand Held Search Lights (HHSL), Hand Held Deep Search Metal Detectors (HHMD), etc.

  • Sophisticated devices such as Hand Held Thermal Imagery (HHTI) systems, Long Range Reconnaissance Observation Systems (LORROS), Battle Field Surveillance Radars (BFSR), etc. are already being used at Borders.

1.4. Issues which India might face

  • The system might suffer numerous technical glitches such as a large number of false alarms, line of sight constraints, unreliable information transmission, and equipment malfunction.

  • At present, many of the high-tech surveillance devices deployed by the BSF are not optimally utilized because the required technical expertise is not uniformly available among the force’s personnel.

  • The exorbitant cost of the electronic devices and the lack of easy availability of spare parts act as a deterrent against their use.

  • Erratic power supply and adverse climatic and terrain conditions in the border areas could potentially undermine the functioning of the sophisticated system.

1.5. Other measures for effective border management

  • Vulnerability mapping of entire border has been made a continuous process based on which sensitive spots are identified and adequate measures are taken to further strengthen security in these spots.

  • Up-gradation of intelligence network and co-ordination with sister agencies, conduct of special operations along the border.

  • Raising the issues of infiltration from across the border during various meeting with counterpart countries i.e. Company Commander Meeting, Commandant Level Meeting, Sector Commander Level Meeting, Frontier Level Meeting and Director-General Level Talks.



LCA Tejas

  • It is single-seat multi-role jet fighter, powered by single engine. It is pegged as world’s smallest and lightest supersonic fighter aircraft in its class.

  • It has been designed, developed and manufactured indigenously by state owned Hindustan Aeronautical Limited (HAL) as part of LCA programme, started in 1980s to replace India’s ageing MiG-21 fighters.

  • Range: It has limited reach of little over 400-km and will be mainly used for close air-to-ground operations (unlike Russian-origin Sukhoi-30MKIs or Rafale which have deep strike capability into enemy territory due to their long range).

  • Weaponry: It can fire air-to-air missiles, carry bombs and precision guided ammunition.

2.1. Significance

  • India joins in elite group of countries which have successfully developed air-to-air refuelling system for military aircraft.

  • Air-to-air refuelling capability for LCA will be force multiplier for IAF as it enhances potential of aircraft to stay airborne for much longer period ,thus increasing its range and endurance.

  • It will also enable IAF options to exploit operational potential of LCA as well as to participate in international exercises without having to stop or stage through several locations enroute.

  • LCA gets much closer to important battle-ready tag, called final operational clearance (FOC) with this trial of air-to-air refueling.

3. Military Exercises

  • Exercise Kazind 2018: It is the 3rd edition of Joint military exercise between the Indian and Kazakhstan Army, which was held in Otar region of Kazakhstan.

  • Yudh Abhyas: It is the 14th edition of Joint military combat exercise between the Indian and the US army, which was held at Chaubattia, Uttarakhand.

  • Exercise Slinex 2018: It is the 6th edition of a bi-lateral Naval Exercise between India and Sri Lanka, held in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka.

  • Nomadic Elephant-2018: It is an annual, bilateral military exercise between Indian and Mongolian armies.

  • BIMSTEC MILEX-18: It is the first multilateral military field training exercise between BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation) nations.

  • Exercise Aviaindra-18: It is a bi-annual exercise conducted since 2014, between the air force of India and the Russian Federation.

September Internal Security Threats

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