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1. World Trade Organisation

1.1. Organizational Structure of WTO

  • Ministerial Conference - It Includes all members, meets once in 2 year and the 11th Ministerial Conference was held in Argentina)

  • General Council – It acts a Dispute Settlement Body and Trade Policy Review Body.

1.2. Reforms suggested by EU

1. Proposals for future rule-making activities in WTO.

  • EU has proposed to create incentives for WTO members to fully comply with their subsidy notification obligations so as to bring more transparency in industrial subsidies provided by Member States. This will help in better implementation of SCM (Subsidies and Countervailing Measures) Agreement.

  • It has been further proposed to make rules for better capturing of market-distorting support provided to State owned Enterprises (SOEs) so that they can’t escape SCM mechanism.

  • It has also proposed rules to address discriminatory practices and barriers to foreign investment in services and technology transfer especially in view of behind the border ‘forced technology transfer’.

2. Proposals for a new approach to flexibilities in the context of development objectives

  • As per EU, the WTO system remains blocked due to antiquated approach to flexibilities which allows 2/3rd of the membership, including some of the world’s most rapid, largest and dynamic economies (China, India, Brazil etc.) to claim special and differential treatment.

  • While acknowledging the need for flexible treatment to LDCs, it has sought other Members to move away from blanket exemptions to a needs-driven and evidence-based approach to ensure Special and Differential Treatment to be as targeted as possible.

3. Proposals to strengthen procedural aspects of the WTOs rule making activities

  • Flexible Multilateralism- Members interested in pursuing a certain issue which is not yet ready for full multilateral consensus, should be able to advance an issue and reach an agreement if its benefits are made available to all members as MFN.

  • Role of WTO Secretariat should be strengthened in support of various negotiations as well as implementation and monitoring functions.

1.3. WTO and its evolution

  • WTO i.e. World Trade Organization was set up under Marrakesh Treaty (1994) as a result of Uruguay Round (1986-1994).

  • WTO as an organization was expected to play larger role for improved living standards, employment generation, trade expansion with increasing share for developing countries and overall sustainable development. Trade liberalization was seen as means for achieving the above-mentioned objectives.

  • Basic principles of trade liberalizations that were to be followed were:

  • o Non-discrimination–Countries will not discriminate one from another. It had be achieved through Most Favored Nations status i.e. neutral trading relations and National treatment to non-domestic producers.

  • o Reciprocity– The concessions conferred by countries had to be mutual.

  • These principles are implemented through Ministerial Conferences, taking consensus-based decisions based on ‘one country one vote which demonstrates democratic structure and processes of WTO.

  • Also, a dispute resolutions mechanism provides protection against arbitrariness. The raison d’être of WTO lies in its rule based binding commitment, retreating from which poses greater risks, a scenario unfavorable to member states.

1.4. Brewing Discontent

  • A democratic inclusive WTO however, started showing signs of discontent. The issues came to surface in the very first Singapore Ministerial (1996).

  • Singapore issues spilled over to Seattle, Cancún and finally to Doha Ministerial. The recent trade war between US and China where US is increasing import tariffs is a symptom of the larger rot.

1.5. Reasons for Crumbling Of WTO

  • Changing world order: The unipolar world under US was represented through institutions like WTO. Trade during this phase became rule based in nature which favored the west. But this unipolar world order is facing structural changes with rise of developing countries and their increasing share in world trade. This is perceived by US and EU as unfavorable whom they have attacked by resorting to policies of protectionism. E.g. China via trade war, Solar panel case against India in Dispute Settlement Body.

  • Process Loopholes: The negotiation process prime facie seems democratic but Ministerial Conferences are accused of being opaque and overly technical. The green room meetings prohibit participation of majority of countries. It has proven to be disproportionately advantageous to developed countries. Moreover, consensus-based rule making has become a root cause in stagnation in reforms.

  • Nature of agreements: Agreements signed under WTO are alleged to be discriminatory and exclusionary in functioning. DDA (Doha Development Agenda has still not been able to provide permanent solution to subsidies under domestic support. WTO do not have any agreement to deal with digital enabled trade i.e. e-commerce. o Allegations are leveled by developed countries against developing of flouting TRIPS. They oppose generic medicines, compulsory license and import substitution. On the other hand, developing countries cite public health concerns and level allegations of ever-greening against pharmaceutical companies.

  • Dispute Resolution: The dispute resolution mechanism is costly and lengthy. It is majorly resorted to by developed countries and developing countries are victims to the mechanism. There is politicization of the Appellate Body appointment and reappointment process. E.g. solar panel dispute was adjudged in favor of US is a case in point.

Why WTO Should Survive?

  • Amidst all these challenges that WTO faces, we cannot deny the role it has played in integrating and opening the world trade.

  • WTO regulates 98% of global trade flows. The average value of tariffs has reduced by 85% since 1942. Tariff reduction along with technological advances have driven extra-ordinary expansion of global trade.

  • Trade as a share of GDP has grown from 24% in 1960 to 60% in 2015. Expansion of trade has fueled economic growth, created jobs and increased household incomes around the world.

  • An ever-deepening rules-based system—notably under the GATT and WTO—brought more openness, transparency, and stability.

  • Trade act as a powerful force too for inclusive Growth, by lowering poverty and by opening opportunities for small firms, women, farmers as well as fishermen.

  • As nations’ economies have become more and more inter-dependent, breakdown of a trade organization will be major blow to international trade order.

1.5. Way Forward

WTO should reflect the Global structural change

  • Plurilateral trade negotiations- As WTO is a member led organization, all countries i.e. developing and developed have to join hands to improve its structure and processes. WTO should move to Plurilateral negotiations where like-minded countries can come forward to discuss issues specific to them and form rules with respect to the common issue.

  • Trade agreements –Today trade has become digital technology enabled and there is urgent need to form agreement regarding e- commerce. Open and regulated electronic commerce that is considerate of national governments sovereignty and security is the need of the hour.

  • Services today form a bulk of trade i.e. two third of global GDP, yet global trade policy lags behind in services facing higher barriers than goods. To rectify these, GATS has to become more open and transparent. It has to address monopolistic practices, financial regulations and irregular immigration.

Trade related policies for inclusiveness-

  • All member countries need to understand different levels of development of different countries. On the basis of this, a consultation committee has to be formed. The negotiation meetings have to be more open, transparent and inclusive.

  • The agreements on agriculture should be restructured to address concerns of developing countries and Least developed countries.

  • E-commerce should benefit the SMEs and women entrepreneurs for the development of rural economy.

  • Social security laws, skill upgradation, flexible mobility of workers within the international agreements will impart more stability and sustainability to the multilateral trading system.

  • Collective Bargain Like Minded Groups like G-33, African community has to increase their collective bargain in order to demand favorable provision in agreements on agriculture, services, intellectual property etc. The dispute mechanism should become more powerful and member driven.

  • Change in the mindset of developed countries - Developed countries like US and EU have to be convinced of the larger role WTO played in their growth and maintenance of open trade system. The time has come for the emerging economies and the developing world to have a greater say in how to shape multilateralism and its institutions. The developed nations have to realize this truth.

2. Unrealized Potential Of South Asian Trade

2.1.Trends in trade in South Asia

  • Intra-regional trade- It accounts for a little more than 5 percent of South Asia’s total trade while it accounts for 50 percent of total trade in East Asia and the Pacific and 22 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  • Intra-regional trade part of regional GDP- The relatively large economies of South Asia just have only 1% of its trade as GDP as against 2.6 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa and about 11 percent in East Asia and the Pacific.

  • Trade Restrictiveness- According to global trade data, trade restrictiveness index is 2 to 9 times higher for imports from South Asia than rest of the world in case of India, Nepal, Srilanka and Pakistan.

  • Disproportionate cost of trade-The South Asian regional trading cost is 20% higher than ASEAN.

2.2. Causes of Skewed Trend

  • Non-functional SAFTA

  • Para tariffs –These are duties levied on imports but not on domestic production. These Para tariffs are kept out of SAFTA thus leads to artificial high tariffs. E.g. simple average tariff in Bangladesh in fiscal year 2016/17 almost doubles, from 13.3 percent to 25.6 percent due to Para tariffs.

  • Sensitive List - This list comprises goods that are exempted from tariff rationalization. Almost 35 percent of the value of intraregional trade in South Asia is subject to sensitive list tariffs. There is no provision in SAFTA to phase out this list.

  • Non-Tariff Measures - Non-tariff barriers (NTBs) in form of sanitary, labor, phyto-sanitary etc. are abnormally high for specific products and market combinations in South Asia. It varies from over 75 percent to over 2000 percent. E.g. port restrictions are imposed by several countries in the region. For instance, Pakistan allows only 138 items to be imported from India over the Attari–Wagah land route, the only land port between the two countries. This erodes market access opportunities. This is further accentuated by information asymmetries with respect to different forms of non-tariff barriers across the region.

  • Lack of Border infrastructure and procedural delays- There is poor transportation and logistics infrastructure across south Asian borders. Inefficient customs and border procedures makes the trade slow thereby increasing the cost of trade. e.g. cumbersome product registration and requisite authorization processes for pharma import.

  • Poor Regional Connectivity- There is dearth of air, land and water transportation in the region. The service trade is hugely restricted due to unfriendly visa regimes. It restricts FDI and development of regional value chains.

  • Lack of normal trade between India and Pakistan- The complex trade relation between India and Pakistan has heavily impacted South Asian trade. The two countries account for 88% of the region’s GDP. The trade potential is of $37 billion which today stands at $2 billion only.

  • Trust Deficit-There is security dilemma in the South Asian region due to large size of India vis-à-vis other countries in the region. This fear and insecurity give rise to mistrust which is perpetuated further by a lack of people-to-people interactions and partnerships.

What needs to be done?

  • Restructuring of SAFTA - Eliminate SAFTA’s sensitive list in 10 years and for starters the list can be narrowed down as of now. Also, a panel of experts should be formed to decide on elimination of Para tariffs reduction and accelerate removal of Para tariffs on non-sensitive list.

  • Non-Tariff Barrier reduction- NTB can be addressed by filling the information gaps, developing border infrastructure and simplifying the administrative procedures. An awareness program across the region and a bilateral dispute resolution mechanism is essential. Introduction of electronic data interchange, risk management systems, and single windows at borders is the need of the hour.

India -Pakistan trade relations- A recipe for peace

  • Current Status-Slow progress in trade with declining trend-

  • Though trade increased by 3.5 times between 2000-2005 but it was slow. Recently it fell in 2017 to $2.40 billion from $2.70 billion in 2013-2014.

  • There has been minimal increase in Indian exports after Pakistan’s change in import policy in 2012. In 2016-2017 new exports were only 12% of India’s total export to Pakistan.

  • In absence of full trade relations there is rampant illegal trade routed through West Asia and Nepal.

  • Indirect trade via UAE is 10 times the normal bilateral trade.

2.3 Required Changes

  • Development of Regional Value chains in textile, pharma and sports goods. Develop links between textile hubs i.e. Lahore and Surat etc.

  • Normalization of trading relations i.e. Non-discriminatory in nature thereby complying with the WTO rules.

  • Narrowing the sensitive list on both sides and reducing non-tariff barriers.

  • Business level dialogue-It includes building social capital in trading community; develop business to business linkages through national chambers and implementing SAARC visa regime.

  • Enhance Regional Connectivity – Connectivity is main constituent of trade relations. Road, rail and air connectivity will induce trade. Bilateral air service policies and simplified Visa regimes should be followed. E.g. success of India Sri Lanka air service agreement.

  • Building Trust- Trust induces trade and trade results into peace and prosperity. The border haats at India Bangladesh border is a case in point. It has helped in developing social capital between both the countries.

2.4. Benefits of enhanced trade

  • Socio economic conditions - South Asian region suffers from similar problems like poverty, hunger, malnutrition, unemployment, gender discrimination etc. All countries in the region will gain from regional trade as it will help in lowering socioeconomic disparities.

  • Gains to various stakeholders- Consumers gain from access to food products, services, and consumer goods. Producers and exporters gain from greater access to inputs, investment, and production networks. Firms gain from expanding market access in goods and services.

  • Increased Access to landlocked countries and sub regions - Landlocked countries like Afghanistan, Bhutan, and Nepal, and isolated sub regions, such as Northeast India and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and the Federally-Administered Tribal Areas in Pakistan will benefit as cost of transportation and logistics will come down. It will in turn increase the access.

3. Early-Harvest Package For Rcep

3.1. Background

  • The RCEP, forged during the 2012 ASEAN summit in Cambodia, was built upon the premise of broadening and deepening engagement among parties and facilitating participation to promote economic development in the region.

  • But the negotiations which had begun in 2012 resulted in a stalemate due to various differences among members.

  • In the earlier ministerial meetings, India has made it clear that it doesn’t favour an “early harvest”, this means agreements on all the three pillars of negotiations — goods, services and investment — can be implemented only as a package, not one at a time. So even if a consensus is reached early on goods (which is what most nations want), it cannot be enforced in isolation.

  • The trade ministers of 16 RCEP members met in Singapore on 30th August 2018 to review the progress of negotiations.

3.2. Potential gains for India from joining RCEP

  • Benefits related to exports: Apart from various sectors of potential exports growth like processed food, metal manufactures, gems, etc. focusing on trade in services with ASEAN will give India an opportunity to use its competitive strength to become a services export hub for the ASEAN region.

  • This assumes even greater importance since our focus has been on products with favourable terms of trade for India, implying that, per-unit foreign exchange realization from these products will be greater than per-unit foreign exchange expenditure on imports of similar products within intra-industry trade pattern.

  • FDI gains- RCEP will facilitate India’s integration into


About RCEP

  • The RCEP is billed as an FTA between the 10-member ASEAN bloc and its six FTA partners— India, China, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand.

  • Once concluded, RCEP will create the largest regional trading bloc, making up 25% of GDP, 30% of global trade, and 26% of foreign direct investment (FDI) flows.

  • The RCEP ‘guiding principles and objectives state that the “negotiations on trade in goods, trade in services, investment and other areas will be conducted in parallel to ensure a comprehensive and balanced outcome.” sophisticated regional production networks. The arrangement is expected to harmonise the trade-related rules, investment and competition regimes of India with those of other countries in the group. There would be a boost to inward and outward foreign direct investment, particularly export-oriented FDI.

  • Connection with global value chain- ASEAN has been a great region in establishing international production network (IPN). India can gain from such experience and help in integrating micro and small-and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) into regional value chains.

  • Better engagements- It can deepen integration among the member countries. Given that the possibility of India joining the TPP is still a long way off, being a member of the RCEP will help India prepare itself to better engage with mega FTAs in the future.

  • Regional economic integration is an indispensable component of the Act East policy and joining RCEP has a potential to giving a philip to the policy.

  • If India is out of the RCEP, it would make its exports price uncompetitive since other RCEP members would enjoy preferential access. The ensuing export-losses contributes to foreign exchange shortages and the subsequent extent of depreciation of the rupee.

3.3 Potential Challenges for India from RCEP

  • India’s trade deficit- India has $104 billion trade deficit with RCEP grouping, which is 64% of India’s total trade deficit of 2017-18. India has already agreed to offer tariff liberalization on 74% of goods from China, Australia and New Zealand, and it could go up to 86% for other RCEP members. This may further increase the deficit.

  • Threat from Chinese products- The move may lead to Indian markets being flooded with more Chinese goods, especially in steel and textile sector which may harm the local industry and distort trade.

  • India’s SME sector will especially face tough competition from China and it is this sector where future jobs can be created because the top notch manufacturing units in India are going for robotics and automation in a big way.

  • Costly legal suits- Inclusion of an Investor State Dispute Settlement mechanism could lead to India getting involved in costly legal suits filed against it by corporates.

  • Issue of strict IPR regime- India has to be wary of measures that may lead to losing its right to produce cheap generic drugs due to the enforcement of a strict IPR regime related to patent term extension and data exclusivity.

Way forward

  • India should focus on skilling its manpower as the aging countries of Asia would anyway need skilled professionals from India because of its demographic advantage.

  • Along with negotiating the much-needed space to its real sectors to gain competitive edge, India will need second-generation reforms of its domestic economic policies, including those that reform its factor markets, to make its trade more competitive. These reforms will help India better access other markets.

  • Do a trade deal which will provide the necessary instruments that will ensure the economic viability of small farmers and industries, especially small-scale producers, in the face of relentless import competition.

  • The government must take into account the deeper strategic pitfalls of slowing down India’s RCEP engagement, i.e., giving China further space in the regional trade and security architecture.

4. Russia And China Relations

4.1. About the Exercise

  • Nature and scale of the exercise -The exercise is proclaimed as a rapprochement move by Russia to ensure strategic partnership between China and Russia. It is the biggest military exercise by Russia since 1981.

  • Why this exercise- Context

  • US hegemony - US has recently unveiled its new defense policy that underlines strategic competition with Russia and China, thus bringing the two united against US. They both want to revise the status quo by containing US.

  • Changing Geopolitical order –China’s rise since last decade and Russia’s continuous attempt to reassert its great power status is a continuous opposition to US led unipolar world. Both perceive the world today as multipolar with various fulcrums of power.

What is aimed to be achieved?

  • Russia’s interests

  • The growing west sanctions and aggressiveness of NATO in Russia’s neighbor i.e. Eastern Europe is forcing Russia to look for partners to lessen the damage. As Russian economy is military driven Chinese accommodation in it would strengthen its defenses.

  • Russia wants to assert its national interests and sovereignty through this exercise.

  • Conducting exercise at this large scale in Far East is to ensure continuation of it’s development trajectory which has been shadowed several times during the past because of disturbances in this region. e.g. Japan’s victory over Russia in 1904-05, Chinese aggression in 1969 etc.

  • China’s Stake o China wants to send a strong message to US against its effort to contain China by playing the Russian card.

  • It wants to caution its regional rivals mainly India and Vietnam by its ability of multiple war fighting techniques in different theatres.

  • Also, it wanted to learn from Russian army’s vast experience in fighting counter insurgency tactics that Russia used in Syria and Eastern Ukraine.

4.2 Effect on India Russia relation

  • Russia’s accommodation of China has long term security and strategic implications for India.

  • India has special and privileged strategic partnership with Russia but recently it has been on a decline. India has long been showing inertia with respect to Russia.

  • India has been diversifying its defense and increasing its bonhomie with US and while doing this it has not accommodated Russian concerns thus impacting Indo- Russian relations.

  • Russia has started changing its earlier stance with respect to China. It has come a long way in promoting military and trade relations with China e.g. selling of Sukoi 35, armur class submarine etc. Further, it has increased its energy supply to China and has become its largest oil supplier. It has asked India to support OBOR.

  • Also, the long maintained embargo on supply of arms to Pakistan has been diluted and it is now favoring Taliban in Afghanistan peace process.

  • Russia’s stronger relation with China will directly impact India’s relation with China and Pakistan. India and China has issues regarding boundary, Pakistan, OBOR, South China Sea etc. China can grow more assertive on these issues with Russian support which can weaken India’s strategic interests. Moreover, Russia is India’s biggest defense supplier, nuclear and cyber security provider and a trusted ally. Decline in the relation will impact our security interests too.

What should India Do?

  • India has to realign its relation with Russia in order to maintain balance of power in the region vis a vis China.

  • Developing strong Economic Partnership – Trade is the weakest link in India Russia relation. No relation can be carried out without a strong economic interdependence in present age. India Russia bilateral trade is around $11 billion whereas Russia China trade is $100 billion. India has to address various trade related issues like visa regime, an alternate route to carry trade amidst US sanctions etc.

  • Limitation of Russia-China relation –Though Russia and China are building their partnership but both countries has structural differences with respect to their position in the world, level of economic growth, relation with US and their role in Central Asia and Europe. India needs to build on these diverging interests between the two. Russia and India can together work in Central Asia and Eastern Europe as India does not pose threat to Russia’s position in these regions unlike China. Russia has been a great power and still is a major power India needs to help Russia in building that image again.

  • Common interests of the trio – India, China and Russia should work together as all three prefer multipolar world order, peace in Afghanistan and stability in Central Asia. The most apt platform to realize this is Shanghai Cooperation Organization.



  • India has to bring realism into its relation with Russia in order to preserve its strategic and security interests.

5. India-Bangladesh

5.1. About the Inaugurated projects

  • These projects include:

  • Supply of 500 MW additional power supply from India to Bangladesh.

  • Construction work of Dhaka-Tongi and Tongi-Joydebpur railway line and Bangladesh part of Akhaura-Agartala railway link.

  • Rehabilitation of the Kulaura-Shahbazpur section of Bangladesh Railways.

  • Construction of 130-kilometre India-Bangladesh Friendship Pipeline Project for the transportation of oil, connecting Siliguri in India and Parbatipur in Bangladesh.

5.2. Significance of the move

  • It will boost trade and connectivity between Bangladesh and the landlocked northeast.

  • The rebuilding of Kulaura-Shahbazpur section of Bangladesh Railways can be seen as part of a trans Asian railway project that seeks to connect South Asia to Southeast Asia.

  • It will strengthen the energy partnership between two countries, which is in pursuance of India's neighbourhood first policy.

6. Maldives Elections

6.1. Importance of Maldives for India

  • Strategically located in the Indian Ocean, Maldives archipelago comprising 1,200 coral islands lies next to key shipping lanes which ensure uninterrupted energy supplies to countries like China, Japan and India.

  • As the pre-eminent South Asian power and a 'net security provider' in the Indian Ocean region, India needs to cooperate with Maldives in security and defence sectors.

  • India was among the first to recognise Maldives after its independence in 1965 and to establish diplomatic relations with the country.

  • Indians are the second largest expatriate community in the Maldives with approximate strength of around 26,000. Indian expatriate community consists of workers as well as professionals.

  • Indian Army's 'Operation Cactus' foiled a coup in Maldives that was attempted by a pro-Eelam group in 1988.

  • India maintains a naval presence in Maldives, at the request of the Maldives, since 2009.


  • Yameen government which came to power in disputed elections in 2013, had ruled with an iron hand, withdrawing from the Commonwealth, conspicuously courting China and weakening traditional ties with India -cancelling Indian company GMR’s contract to modernise Male airport, rejecting visa renewals of Indians working in the Maldives and declining to participate in joint naval exercises earlier this year.

  • Yameen government is accused of allowing a Chinese ‘land grab’ of Maldivian islands, key infrastructure, and even essential utilities, which not only undermined the independence of the Maldives, but the security of the entire Indian Ocean region.

Why Maldives election were important?

  • Political Crisis: The election was conducted in the background of an extraordinary situation in which President Yameen had recently declared a state of emergency and ordered the arrest of two judges to force the Bench to its earlier order that was against his government apart from imprisoning his half-brother and former president Maumoon Gayoom.

  • Chinese Support: The election witnessed the massive use of money and muscle power largely sourced from Involvement of China in Maldives

  • Two nations signed 12 pacts, including a free trade agreement (FTA) and endorsed China’s ambitious Maritime Silk Road initiative. Maldives became the second country in South Asia, after Pakistan, to enter into an FTA with China.

  • With China owning 70 per cent of the country's debt, the Maldives is now into serious debt trap.

  • Maldives signed China's Belt and Road Initiative, changed laws to lease out several prime islands to China, and allowed Beijing to build an observation post in Makunudhoo, the westernmost atoll, not far from India.

  • Chinese companies were given contracts for several infrastructure projects in the Maldives, including the recently inaugurated Sinamale Bridge linking Male to Hulhule Island, and a 1,000-apartment housing project on Hulhumale, a suburb that Beijing built on reclaimed land. generous Chinese support. Yameen’s five-year tenure saw the tiny island abandoning its long-time pro-India approach to a pro-China policy.

  • Hence, new elected president can reverse the stand of pro-China policy to pro-India policy and also providing chance to improve bilateral relations for India.

6.2. Chance for India

  • At the moment, India maintains excellent rapport with opposition parties and enjoys wide approval among Maldivian society for its positive role, particularly in the last one year that witnessed a 45-day emergency in February and widespread repression by the incumbent government.

  • Delhi seems to have learned a lesson from its bitter experience during the undeclared blockade in Nepal which caused much damage to its goodwill among the Nepalese population.

  • The Sri Lankan experience should remind India that given its economic and strategic heft, China will continue to be an influential player in the region, including in the Maldives. Rather than getting obsessive about keeping China out of this strategic archipelago of the Indian Ocean, India should work with other powers, particularly the United States (US) and European Union to ensure that the Maldives’ transition to democracy remains on smooth course.

  • India can move forward with confidence and circumspection to mend the battered bilateral relations with Maldives.

6.3. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) 1968: 

  • Its objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. India is a non-signatory to this treaty.

  • Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons 2017: It is the first legally binding international agreement that prohibits States Parties from developing, testing, producing, manufacturing, acquiring, possessing, or stockpiling nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.

  • Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones (NWFZ): It is a regional approach to strengthen global nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament norms and consolidate international efforts towards peace and security.

September International Relations

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