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1. State Of Internal Migrants In India

1.1. Reasons of Migration

  • Structural transformation of the economy- The economic reforms of 1992 brought about fundamental changes in the economy of India. There was thrust on the secondary sector in order to boost employment. According to Census 2011, the average growth rate of the economy was 7.7 per cent per annum mainly secondary and service sector led pulling people to migrate to the places witnessing this growth.

  • Underdevelopment of development- Agricultural growth has been, on average, lower than that in non-agriculture, including industry. Demographic pressure has pushed to 0.2 hectares of cultivable land per head of rural population. It has also progressively pushed down the size structure of landholdings. Thus, agricultural surplus labor is pushed to cities in search of work.

  • Urbanization- The process of urbanization accompanying growth has caused regional imbalance. As per the census, the level of urbanization in India has increased from 27.81% in 2001 to 31.16% in 2011. Cities promised better education, work, health facilities, and autonomy etc. attracting huge rural population.

  • Migration network and Migration Industry- The already established friends and families provide finance, information and places to live thus promoting migration. Also, migration is facilitated by a wide range of individuals and agents like brokers; labor recruiters etc. who derive profit from migration.

Why migration matters?

Key Trends

  • Traditionally based on 2001 census the migration in India was noted to be low at around 33 million with the low rate of growth.

  • But 2017 Economic survey takes a different view and shows that migration in India is accelerating and the migrant population is in the country is 139 million.

  • It shows that between 2011 and 2016, close to nine million people migrated between states annually, up from about 3.3 million according to successive censuses.

  • In the period 2001-11, the annual rate of growth of labor migrants nearly doubled relative to the previous decade, rising to 4.5 per cent per annum in 2001-11 from 2.4 per cent in 1991- 2001, accompanied by a surge in the economy.

  • The migrants’ share of the workforce rose substantially.

  • The acceleration of migration was particularly pronounced for females.

  • In the 1990s female migration was extremely limited, and migrants were shrinking as a share of the female workforce.

  • But in the 2000s the picture turned around completely, female migration for work not only grew far more rapidly than the female workforce, but increased at nearly twice the rate of male migration.

  • Relatively less developed states such as Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have high net outmigration.

  • Relatively more developed states have in migration: Goa, Delhi, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka.

  • Positive Impact on the economy- The migrants are often engaged in the construction, textile, mines, domestic work, and hotel etc. performing semi-skilled and low skilled jobs giving impetus to these sectors. They form a big part of the informal economy which is 87% of Indian economy. E.g. Green Revolution owes its success to migrant labors.

  • Social Cohesion and urban diversity o Migration provides opportunity to escape caste divisions and restrictive social norms and to work with dignity and freedom at the new place.

  • Left-behind women enjoy empowerment, with increased interaction in society, including their participation as workers and decision makers of households.

  • It promotes diverse culture in India through people to people interaction and reducing information gaps in society.

  • Brain Gain- Migrants bring back a variety of skills, knowledge and information known as ‘social remittances’, including change in tastes, perceptions and attitudes. For example, awareness about workers’ rights, non-acceptance of poor employment conditions, low wages, semi-feudal labor relationships and improved knowledge.

  • Domestic Remittance Industry- Domestic remittance industry is huge and is expected to increase by 1.5 lakh crores. The remittances increase purchasing power parity of native people and people start investing in health and education also.

1.2. Challenges of Migration

Development Cost

  • Unplanned development has serious consequences both for the in-migration destination and the migrant.

  • It creates pressure on resources like land, housing, transportation and jobs. Migrant’s population can indulge in criminal activity disrupting the social fabric of the in-migration area. The recent backlash in Gujarat was about migrants taking away jobs of locals and committing crimes.

  • Migrants due to low bargaining power and skills have to face numerous constraints, including lack of political representation; inadequate housing and lack of formal residency rights; low-pays, insecure or hazardous work; limited access to state provided services such as health and education; and discrimination based on ethnicity, religion, class or gender.

  • Low priority in governance - Regulations and administrative procedures exclude migrants from access to legal rights, public services and social protection programmes given to residents, because of which they are often treated as second class citizens.

  • Weak Law - The Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act (1979) is weak. o It remains silent on provision for crèches, education centres for children or mobile medical units for the laborers and it has no guidelines for inter-state cooperation.

  • The law covers only regulation of employment and conditions of service of migrants and does vnot address access to social protection of migrants, their right to the city and the special vulnerabilities of children and women migrants.

  • The Important provisions of the Act such as minimum wages, displacement allowance, medical facilities and protective clothing remain unenforced.

  • Lack of reliable data-

  • There exists a serious data gap on the extent, nature and magnitude of internal migration. Databases such as the Census fail to adequately capture real information about migration leading to problems in defining, designing and delivering services to migrants.

Way forward

  • Coherent Policy Framework and strategy-

  • Mainstreaming migration in a comprehensive and focused manner in policy and national development plans e.g. smart city mission, AMRUT, housing for all, ayushman bharat etc.

  • Develop a universal national minimum social security package covering minimum wages and labor standards and incorporating portability of benefits in all government social protection schemes and public services through an interstate registration process.

  • In Kerala, the construction industry, for example, which has a huge percentage of migrant labor, has a welfare board with a ₹ 1,000 crore corpus, and the government has announced a survey of migrant workers’ living conditions, and assistance in procuring health insurance and legal aid.

  • Amend the 1979 the Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act to make it more inclusive of migrants.

  • Evidence based policy making- A comprehensive data needs to be collected scientifically through mapping, profiling etc. in order to understand the nature of migration in India wrt to gender, region, caste, seasonal cycle etc.

  • Capacity building and state coordination

  • Create inter-district and inter-state coordination committees to jointly plan institutional arrangements between administrative jurisdictions of sending and receiving areas to ensure service delivery.

  • Build capacity of panchayats to maintain a database of migrant and establish vigilant committees at the local level.

  • Establish migrant labor cells in each state labor department with the support of the Labor Ministry.

  • Increase financial and human resources in migration-prone areas.

  • Promote public-private partnerships (PPP) for the promotion of safe internal migration.

  • Ensure access to formal banking facilities for migrants to enable safe and secure transfer of remittances.

2. Women In Agriculture

2.1 Current trends in feminisation of Agriculture

  • According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), women's contribution to Indian agriculture is about 32%, while in some states (such as Hills, Northeast, and Kerala) contribution of women to agriculture and rural economy is more than men.

  • Economic Survey 2017-18 says that with growing rural to urban migration by men, there is ‘feminisation’ of agriculture sector, with increasing number of women

  • National Women’s Farmer’s Day (Rashtriya Mahila Kisan Diwas) • The United Nations observes October 15 as International Rural Women’s Day to highlight the contribution of rural women to the world’s economic development.

  • Taking cue from this, the Government of India declared October 15 as Rashtriya Mahila Kisan Diwas in 2016.

  • This was a welcome step, especially in the context of the agricultural collapse that has engulfed the country and has manifested itself through farm suicides and exclusion of women agricultural labourers from the narrative of agricultural reforms in India.in multiple roles as cultivators, entrepreneurs, and labourers. According to Census 2011, out of total female main workers, 55% were agricultural labourers and 24% were cultivators.

  • A research by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) shows that the participation of women is 75% in the production of major crops, 79% in horticulture and 51% in post-harvest work.

2.2. Impact of women in agriculture:

  • FAO estimates that if women had the same access to productive resources as men, they could increase yields on their farms by 20-30%. This could raise total the agricultural output in developing countries by up to 4% which would mean a dramatic reduction in hunger.

  • Research worldwide shows that women with access to secure land, formal credit and access to market have greater propensity in making investments in improving harvest, increasing productivity, and improving household food security and nutrition.

  • Women are more likely than men to hold low-wage, part-time, seasonal employment and they tend to be paid less even when their qualifications are higher than men’s, but new jobs in high-value, export-oriented agro-industries offer much better opportunities for women.

  • Women can propel the country towards second Green Revolution and they can change the landscape of the development if they get opportunities and facilities.

2.3. Reasons behind Feminization of Agriculture

  • Male Migration- There has been a need for men to find better avenues for income for the sustenance of their family. Urban centres have been seen as providing lucrative job opportunities for them. Men from rural areas migrate to cities seeking a means for regular income leaving behind the agricultural chores to women.

  • Low level of Skills- The women in turn face various hardships while operating agricultural chores such as low level of agricultural skills, lack knowledge to improve productivity thereby entering into a vicious cycle of poverty.

  • Lack of Property Rights- Given the social and religious set up in India, women do not generally enjoy equal property rights as their male counter parts. The property related rules and rights are governed by the religious laws which are inherently unequal.

  • Lack of bargaining power to women- Due to lack of property rights, women are generally not given the land rights in their name. Because of this, women lack bargaining power in the family as against the property holding male member. Also, due to low level of skills, they work much longer hours than men and are paid lesser than their counterpart.

  • Farmer Suicides: The increasing numbers of suicides among male farmers forces women to take up farming as they cannot manage their families with the compensation that they may get.

2.4. Challenges faced by women in Agriculture:

  • Issue of land ownership: The biggest challenge is the powerlessness of women in terms of claiming ownership of the land they have been cultivating. As per Census 2011, only 12.8% of the operational holdings were owned by women, which reflect the gender disparity in ownership of landholdings in agriculture.

  • Lack of Institutional Credit: Lack of ownership of land does not allow women farmers to approach banks for institutional loans as banks usually consider land as collateral.

  • Non-recognition: According to Oxfam India, women are responsible for about 60-80% of food and 90% of dairy production, respectively. But the work by women farmers, in crop cultivation, livestock management or at home, often goes unnoticed.

  • Contract farming: Female farmers are largely excluded from modern contract-farming arrangements because they lack secure control over land, family labour and other resources required to guarantee delivery of a reliable flow of produce.

  • Innovation in Agriculture: When a new technology is introduced to automate specific manual labour, women may loose their jobs because they are often responsible for the manual duties.

  • Lack of Training: Attempts by the government to impart them training in poultry, apiculture and rural handicrafts is trivial given their large numbers.

  • Gender discrimination: The 17-country study by Corteva Agriscience revealed that almost 78% women farmers in India face gender discrimination.

  • Poor Representation: As of now, women farmers have hardly any representation in society and are nowhere discernible in farmers’ organisations or in occasional protests.

  • Access to resource and inputs: When compared to men, women generally have less access to resources and modern inputs (seeds, fertilizers, pesticides) to make farming more productive.

Way Forward

  • Provision of credit without collateral under the micro-finance initiative of NABARD should be encouraged. Better access to credit, technology, and provision of entrepreneurship abilities will further boost women’s confidence and help them gain recognition as farmers.

  • A declining size of land holdings may act as a deterrent due to lower net returns earned and technology adoption. The possibility of collective farming can be encouraged to make women self-reliant.

  • Training and skills imparted to women as has been done by some self-help groups and cooperative-based dairy activities (Saras in Rajasthan and Amul in Gujarat). These can be explored further through farmer producer organisations.

  • Government flagship schemes such as the National Food Security Mission, Sub-mission on Seed and Planting Material and the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana must include women-centric strategies and dedicated expenditure.

  • Most of the farm machineries are difficult for women to operate, so it is important to have gender-friendly tools and machinery for various farm operations. Farm machinery banks and custom hiring centres can be roped in to provide subsidised rental services to women farmers.

  • According to Food and Agriculture Organisation, equalising access to productive resources for female and male farmers could increase agricultural output in developing countries by as much as 2.5% to 4%. Krishi Vigyan Kendras in every district can be assigned an additional task to educate and train women farmers about innovative technology along with extension services.

  • An ‘inclusive transformative agricultural policy’ should aim at gender-specific intervention to raise productivity of small farm holdings, integrate women as active agents in rural transformation, and engage men and women in extension services with gender expertise.

3. Teenage Girls (Tag) Report

3.1. About the TAG report

  • The report includes the teenage girls from 13 to 19 years of age group.

  • It reveals what it really means to be a teenage girl in India.

  • Subsequently report/survey findings have also been used to prepare an Index called the TAG Index

3.2. Key Takeaway from the report

On Education

  • During teenage, the percentage of girls studying decreases, nearly 92.3 per cent are studying, at the age of 13 years. Whereas only 65.5 per cent are studying at age 19.

  • Presently, 80 per cent teenage girls are currently studying.

  • In term of current school enrolment, rural India is almost on par with urban India when it comes to girls being in school. The dropout rate in rural areas is also low now.

On Health & Hygiene

  • Overall, 39.8 per cent reported open defecation because; Most of the toilets lack a water connection and the current practice of attached toilet and bathroom has not been a traditional practice thus girls feel shy to use the toilet.

  • Every second teenage girl in India is using unhygienic methods of mensural protection.

  • Nearly, 51.8 per cent teenage girls in India are having anaemia.

On Aspiration

  • Survey showed that nearly, 96% of teenage girls are unmarried with hardly any difference in rural (95.5%) and urban (96.6%).

  • Around 70% girls wish to pursue higher studies and most adolescent girls aspire to work after their studies and marry only when they are able to earn a living.

  • Approx. 73.3% girls want to get married after the age of 21 and wish to pursue higher studies with a Ranking of States & Cities on TAG Index.

  • It is based on performance of each state based on the status of their teenage girls. • Kerala and Mizoram are the top two States while top three cities are Mumbai, Kolkata and Bengaluru.

  • Uttar Pradesh is the worst performer in TAG Index. specific career in mind.

3.3 Significance of empowerment of teenage girl

  • Economic Prospect: various studies by United Nation agencies highlighted that empowering the girls creates a ripple effect in society in term of economic growth. For instance; 10 percent increase in girls going to school can increase the national income (GDP) by three percentage points.

  • Demographic Dividend: In order to utilise this demographic dividend (which is going to last for 25 years) investment in health and education for teenage girls (which is huge proportion of workforce) is paramount.

  • Child Health: The health of the teenage girl holds significance not only for her own life, but also for the health and well-being of the children she may have.

4. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (Kgbv)

4.1  About the Scheme

  • Objective: KGBV scheme under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) provides residential elementary educational facilities at upper primary level to girls belonging to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward Classes, minority communities and families below the poverty line in Educationally Backward Blocks.

  • Present Status: There are 3703 KGBVs, out of which 3697 KGBVs are operational, enrolling 3.78 lakh girls.

  • Convergence with other Scheme: Under the newly launched Integrated Scheme of School Education-Samagra Shiksha, provision has been made to upgrade the existing KGBVs at upper primary level to upto senior secondary level in convergence with the erstwhile Girls Hostel Scheme.

4.2 Challenges in Implementation

  • Poor Management: There are wide variations in the management of KGBVs within and across the states as both government and NGOs are involved in the management of KGBVs.

  • Lack of Funding: Recurring costs of KGBV component of the SSA programme that had not been revised since 2004.

  • Infrastructure Gaps: Construction of school buildings along with proper toilets, library facilities and low female teachers ration where observed as a significant performance gaps.

  • Underutilization of funds: due to the reasons such as low strength of girl children, untimely availability of funds and low teachers’ strength.

  • Security problem in KGBV: Girls feel that lack of boundary wall and lack of security guard is a matter of concern for their security.

  • Role of teacher: The number of teachers per school is less than the requirement, also temporary nature of teaching impact the efficiency of schooling.

Way Forward

  • Better implementation and monitoring: Independent management for KGBV at the national level for better implementation and monitoring of the scheme as variations have been reported in or within the states resulting in deviations from the scheme objectives.

  • Fortifying safety and security aspects: For eg- provision of boundary walls, security personnel etc. are required in KGBVs.

  • Improving Amenities: Better maintenance and repair of infrastructure facilities in hostels, school, library and computer facility.

  • Improving Teachers ratio: Appointment of permanent teachers with training exposure and better salary to focus on teaching-learning activities.

5. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Urban)

5.1. Status of SBA

  • Swachh Bharat Survey was conducted by NSSO during July - December, 2017 along with the other surveys of NSS 75th round (July 2017 - June 2018).

  • Most of the farm machineries are difficult for women to operate, so it is important to have gender-friendly tools and machinery for various farm operations. Farm machinery banks and custom hiring centres can be roped in to provide subsidised rental services to women farmers.

  • According to Food and Agriculture Organisation, equalising access to productive resources for female and male farmers could increase agricultural output in developing countries by as much as 2.5% to 4%. Krishi Vigyan Kendras in every district can be assigned an additional task to educate and train women farmers about innovative technology along with extension services.

  • An ‘inclusive transformative agricultural policy’ should aim at gender-specific intervention to raise productivity of small farm holdings, integrate women as active agents in rural transformation, and engage men and women in extension services with gender expertise.

5.2 Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Urban)

  • It is overseen by the Ministry of Urban Development and is mandated to provide sanitation and household toilet facilities in all 4041 statutory towns with a combined population of 377 million.

  • The Mission aims to cover 1.04 crore households, provide 2.5 lakh community toilet seats, 2.6 lakh public toilet seats and set up in all towns solid waste management facilities.

  • The Urban mission seeks to eliminate open defecation; convert insanitary toilets to flush toilets; eradicate manual scavenging; and facilitate solid waste management.

  • This mission lays special emphasis on bringing about a behavioral change relating to healthy sanitation practices by educating people about the environmental hazards emanating from the strewn garbage, the harmful effects of open defecation etc.

5.3. At the core of this mission lie six components:

  • Individual household toilets(IHHL);

  • Community toilets;

  • Public toilets;

  • Municipal Solid Waste Management;

  • Information and Educating Communication (IEC) and Public Awareness;

  • Capacity Building

5.4. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Urban)

  • It is overseen by the Ministry of Urban Development and is mandated to provide sanitation and household toilet facilities in all 4041 statutory towns with a combined population of 377 million.

  • The Mission aims to cover 1.04 crore households, provide 2.5 lakh community toilet seats, 2.6 lakh public toilet seats and set up in all towns solid waste management facilities.

  • The Urban mission seeks to eliminate open defecation; convert insanitary toilets to flush toilets; eradicate manual scavenging; and facilitate solid waste management.

  • This mission lays special emphasis on bringing about a behavioral change relating to healthy sanitation practices by educating people about the environmental hazards emanating from the strewn garbage, the harmful effects of open defecation etc.

At the core of this mission lie six components:

  • Individual household toilets(IHHL);

  • Community toilets;

  • Public toilets;

  • Municipal Solid Waste Management;

  • Information and Educating Communication (IEC) and Public Awareness;

  • Capacity Building

Problems with respect to Sanitation in Cities

  • Poor utilization of STPs: According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) data, of the 62 billion litres of wastewater (sewage) generated in our cities daily, only 23 billion litres gets treated. The rest, two-thirds of it, flows into rivers untreated.

  • As per CPCB 2015 Report, only 64 percent (522 of 816) sewage-treatment plants (STP) work.

  • Also, building sewers and sewage-treatment plants are not a part of SBM-Urban.

Waste Profile in Urban India

  • Organic/ Compostable- 40-60%

  • Recyclable/ Resource Recoverable- 20-30%

  • Non- Recyclable/ Combustible waste (RDF)- 10-20%

  • Construction and Demolition/ Usable construction material- 5-15%

  • Regional variation in waste treatment: The sewage treatment capacity varies across states. While Maharashtra generates the highest amount of sewage among states, it treats 63 per cent of it. Kerala, West Bengal and Bihar treat less than 10 per cent of the sewage they generate. Overall, only 37 per cent of the municipal waste in India gets treated.

  • Critically polluted rivers: A recent CPCB report shows that about 175 of the 351 select river stretches in India have pollution levels higher than the clean norm.

  • Poor Waste Collection: In India an estimated 65 million tonnes (MT) of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is generated annually by around 400 million urban citizens. Along with the huge number, the collection process is fraught with other issues such as

  • Lack of segregation: As per latest SBM data, only 44 per cent of the total wards in the country are segregating their waste at source. Solid waste that is collected is mostly a mix of dry waste and wet organic waste. In such a situation, the wet waste reacts with the dry waste to create sludge and leachate, which spreads a foul smell across the city, pollutes the groundwater, and proves fatal for sanitation workers.

  • It is estimated that 165 MT of waste will be generated by 2030 and 450 MT by 2050 along with resultant public health and environmental challenges.

  • Pressure on land resource: We are also losing 1250 hectares of additional precious land every year to accommodate dumping of unprocessed MSW.

  • Unconnected population: No more than 56.4 percent of urban homes, where 377 million people live, are connected to sewer lines (36.7 percent of rural areas, where 833 million people live, have drainage), according to a 2017 national sample report.

  • After four years of Swachh Bharat, the gaps are huge. If the crisis in rural areas is the failure to use toilets, in urban areas, it is the failure of sewage and waste treatment that is thwarting the campaign’s objective.

Way Forward

  • In 2013, to raise awareness of the global sanitation challenge, the UN adopted the resolution “Sanitation for All’, to commemorate November 19 as World Toilet Day.

  • Better financial management: Of the Rs 7,365 crores allocated for SBM for Solid Waste Management, only 2126.24 crores (28 per cent) only have been dispersed so far. Its utilization must result in accountable and transparent outlays.

  • Raise awareness: Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) demonstrates the importance of vision and leadership. Public campaigns to raise awareness and mobilise the masses are a basic necessity.

  • Sewerage Master Plan: Success requires long-term national commitment. There is a need to implement a Sewerage Master Plan to separate our sewerage and drainage networks as done by Singapore. This will prevent contamination of rainwater while ensuring recycling of sewage using STPs.

  • International cooperation: India successfully hosted the inaugural Mahatma Gandhi International Sanitation Convention-2018, which has brought together leaders, practitioners, and experts from around the world to share their sanitation stories.

  • Singapore has collaborated with India’s Town and Country Planning Organisation(TCPO) to train 100 officials in urban planning, and water and waste management.

  • Focus on STPs: Building sewers and sewage-treatment plants should be made part of SBM-Urban. This will ensure connecting the rest of the population with sewerage network. The capacity of STPs should also be enhanced with upgradation of old STPs and building new STPs.

  • Adherence to rules and standards: o Every municipality must follow the Solid Waste management Rules-2016 in its solid waste disposal.

  • Design of toilets must adhere to Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Masons should be trained and skilled according to these standards.

6. Global Hunger Index 2018

6.1. About GHI

  • It is a tool designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger at global, regional, and national levels.

  • GHI is released annually by Welthungerhilfe and Concern Worldwide. (The International Food Policy Research Institute, IFPRI was also involved with the publication until this year.)

6.2 Findings related to India:

  • India’s ranking has dropped three places from 2017.

  • India has shown improvement in three of the indicators over the comparable reference years. o The percentage of undernourished people in the population has dropped from 18.2% in 2000 to 14.8% in 2018.

  • Child mortality rate has halved from 9.2% to 4.3%, and

  • Child stunting has dropped from 54.2% to 38.4% over the same period.

  • However, the prevalence of child wasting has worsened. It stood at 17.1% in 2000, and increased to 20% in 2005. In 2018, it stands at 21%. At least one in five Indian children under the age of five are wasted.

6.3. Other Global Findings

  • Globally, the level of hunger falls into the “serious” category at a value of 20.9 on GHI Severity scale. Approximately 124 million people suffer from acute hunger, a steep increase from 80 million in 2016.

  • Across South Asia: Child wasting is constituting a “critical public health emergency”. Low Maternal body mass index BMI and lack of access to improved water and sanitation are more closely associated with rates of child wasting than household wealth, suggesting that a reduction in poverty alone may not be sufficient to correct the problem.

Forced Migration and Hunger

  • This year’s report also analyzes the interplay between hunger and forced migration. For displaced people, hunger may be both a cause and a consequence of forced migration. It gives four key areas in which support to these people needs to be improved:

  • Recognizing and addressing hunger and displacement as political problems;

  • Adopting more holistic approaches to protracted displacement settings involving development support;

  • Providing support to food-insecure displaced people in their regions of origin;

  • Recognizing that the resilience of displaced people is never entirely absent and should be the basis for providing support Policy recommendations in Report for displaced people

  • Leave no one behind o Resources should be focused on those regions of the world where most displaced people are located.

  • Governments must accelerate progress under the UN Plan of Action for Advancing Prevention, Protection, and Solutions for Internally Displaced People 2018–2020.

  • Special vulnerabilities and challenges of women and girls should be prioritised along with acceleration of development in rural areas which is where large number of displaced people originate.

  • Implementing Long-Term solutions o Strengthen the resilience of displaced populations by providing access to education and training, employment, health care, agricultural land, and markets.

  • Implement durable solutions, such as local integration or return to regions of origin on a voluntary basis.

  • Design policies and programs that recognize the complex interplay between hunger and forced migration as well as the dynamics of displacement.

  • Show Solidarity, Share Responsibility o Adopt and implement the UN Global compact on refugees (GCR) and the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM), and integrate their commitments into national policy plans.

  • Uphold humanitarian principles and human rights when assisting and hosting refugees, Internally Displaced Persons, and their host communities.

  • Address the root causes of forced displacement especially in the areas of poverty and hunger reduction; climate action; responsible consumption and production; and promotion of peace, justice, and strong institutions.

  • Governments, politicians, international organizations, civil society, and the media should work to proactively counter misconceptions and promote a more informed debate on these issues.

7. NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

7.1. About NCDs

  • According to WHO, Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases are diseases of long duration which are a result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behavioral factors.

  • The four major non-communicable diseases are: cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases and diabetes

  • Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) kill 41 million people each year, equivalent to 71% of all deaths globally.

  • While NCDs were not included in the Millennium Development Goals, they are now an important target in the Sustainable Development Goals, under which countries would have to “reduce by 1/3rd, pre-mature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment, and promote mental health and wellbeing” by 2030.

 

7.2 Causes of NCDs

  • NCDs are reason for more than 60% death in India.

  • India’s Ministry of Health and Family Welfare recently received the prestigious UN Inter-Agency Task Force Award for “outstanding contribution to the achievement of NCD (Non-Communicable Diseases) related SDG targets”

  • NCDs are reason for more than 60% deaths in India.

  • According to the World Economic Forum (WEF), India stands to lose $ 4.58 trillion (Rs 311.94 trillion) due to non-communicable diseases between 2012 and 2030.

 

7.3. Steps taken By India 

  • WHO has developed a comprehensive Global Monitoring Framework and Action Plan for prevention and Control of NCDs. India is the first country globally to adopt it to its National Context.

  • National Health Policy advocates pre-screening and sets the target to reduce premature mortality via NCDs by 25% by 2025.

  • The central government is implementing National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) for interventions up to District level under the National Health Mission.

  • A flexi pool of funds for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) has been created.

  • NCD IT solution under Ayushman Bharat covers program-level data for screening, referral, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up activities of non-communicable diseases with an aim to connect health workers, doctors and decision-makers in a single, integrated platform.

  • Niti Aayog has proposed models for PPP to increase the role of private hospitals in treating non-communicable diseases.

  • Behavioural Factors: Modifiable behaviours, such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, consumption of processed food with enriched salt and sugar content and the harmful use of alcohol, all increase the risk of NCDs.

  • Metabolic factors: These include raised blood pressure, obesity, high blood glucose levels, etc. These risks are often increased due to behavioural factors.

  • Structural factors: The risks have been aggravated by the increasing sedentary life styles, Urban settlements with lack of open spaces and recreational activities, stressed work culture, pollution etc.

7.4. Impact of NCDs

  • Poverty: The rapid rise in NCDs is predicted to impede poverty reduction initiatives in low-income countries, particularly by increasing household costs associated with health care.

  • Loss of Workforce: Productive demographic dividend can be impacted due to such diseases which may take a toll on the economy. This also increases the Dependency ratio of the country.

  • Impact on children: NCDs impact on children is a major concern, in particular the rising levels of obesity.

Way Forward

  • Healthy Lifestyle: Promote behavioral changes such as reducing tobacco and alcohol consumption, promoting healthy diets, physical activities such as Yoga, sports, exercise, etc.

  • Increase Governmental health expenditure: Actions related to reduction of blood pressure, control of diabetes and provision of competent primary care supplemented by cost-effective specialist clinical care for treatable NCDs will benefit all age groups.

  • Stringent Norms for processed and ready to eat food:

  • The UN declaration has asked food manufacturers to reduce salt, free sugars and saturated and industrially-produced trans fats in their products.

  • It also said that manufacturers should use nutrition labelling on packaged food to inform consumers, and restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children.

  • Private sector participation: In developing countries, private companies must complement governmental efforts to develop programmes to combat NCDs by:

  • establishing tobacco free workplaces

  • improving access to and affordability of safe, effective and quality medicines and technologies in the prevention and control on non-communicable diseases

  • Better Urban planning: It should support safe and pleasurable physical activity (For eg. pedestrian and bicycle lanes in Lucknow, open park gyms in Delhi), and also ensure sufficient green spaces and a pollution free environment.

  • Spread awareness: Spreading awareness about unhealthy lifestyle choices and building a robust early screening system.

October Indian Society and Issues

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