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1. Unesco Global Geopark Network Status

What is UNESCO Global Geopark Network Status?

  • UNESCO Global Geoparks are single, unified geographical areas where sites and landscapes of international geological significance are managed with a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development.

  • It aims to enhance awareness and understanding of key issues facing society, such as using our earth’s resources sustainably, mitigating the effects of climate change and reducing natural disasters-related risks.

  • The Global Geoparks Network (GGN), is a legally constituted not-for-profit organisation. Its membership is obligatory for UNESCO Global Geoparks.

  • At present, there are 140 UNESCO Global Geoparks in 38 countries.

  • An aspiring Global Geopark must have a dedicated website, a corporate identity, comprehensive management plan, protection plans, finance, and partnerships for it to be accepted.

  • As of now there is no geo-heritage site from India is included under UNESCO Geo park Network.

About the sites chosen:

Lonar Lake, Maharashtra:

  • It is the world's oldest meteoric crater formed around 50,000 years ago and the only one formed in basalt rock.

  • It is a salt water lake.

  • It became a national geo-heritage site in 1979.

St. Mary’s Island and Malpe Beach, Karnataka:

  • It is a hexagonal mosaic of basaltic rocks in an island off Udupi.

  • It is estimated to be an 88-million-year-old formation that goes back to a time when Greater India broke away from Madagascar.

  • It was declared a national geo-heritage site in 1975.

1.2  Azad Hind Government

  • A joint court-martial of hundreds of captured INA soldiers, led by Colonel Prem Sehgal, Colonel Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon, Major General Shah Nawaz Khan, was held during 1945- 46 at the Red Fort.

  • Leaders of independence movement Jawaharlal Nehru, Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, Kailashnath Katju, Bhulabhai Desai, Asaf Ali, along with Muslim league defended the comrades of Bose despite difference of ideology.

  • The famous INA trial sparked off massive unrest across the country, including the strike by the ratings (sailors) and officers of the Royal Indian Navy and Air Force -- from the ports of Mumbai and Karachi to Madras, Vishakhapatnam and Calcutta in February 1946. The airmen too struck work at various places including Karachi and Kalaikunda (now in West Bengal).

  • Historians termed this unrest as "the last nail in the coffin" of the British Empire.

1.2.1  Azad Hind Government

  • Subhas Chandra Bose on October 21, 1943, established the provisional Azad Hind government in Singapore. He was the leader of Azad Hind Government and also the Head of State of this Provisional Indian Government-in-exile.

  • It was a part of the freedom movement, originating in 1940s outside India with a purpose of allying with Axis powers to free India from British rule.

  • The existence of the Azad Hind Government gave a greater legitimacy to the independence struggle against the British.

  • The role of Azad Hind Fauj or the Indian National Army (INA) had been crucial in bequeathing a much needed impetus to India’s struggle for Independence.

1.2.2  Indian National Army (INA)

  • The idea of INA was first conceived in Malaya by Mohan Singh.

  • The Indian National Army was founded by prisoners of wars of British Indian Army captured by the Japanese in Singapore, Malaysia and other countries of Southeast Asia during the World War II.

  • On 1 September 1942, the first division of INA was formed.

  • The main task of gathering them and forming the INA was carried out by Rashbehari Bose, one of the stalwarts of the freedom movement. Later it was reconsolidated as an army by Subhas Chandra Bose.

  • The INA was also at the forefront of women's equality, and the formation of a women's regiment, the Rani of Jhansi Regiment was formed as an all-volunteer women's unit to fight the British Raj as well as provide medical services to the INA.

2. Vishwa Shanti Ahimsa Sammelan

  • Vishwa Shanti Ahimsa Sammelan (VSAS) 2018 took place in Mangi-Tungi in Satana Taluka of Nashik District, Maharashtra.

About Mangi Tungi Hills:

  • These are the two hills of Sahyadri range.

  • The hills have about 10 cave temples belonging to Jainism.

  • These two peaks have special significance in Jainism because around 990 million Digambar Jains achieved salvation on these two hills. Therefore, the area is called ‘Siddha Kshtera’ (gateway to the state of enlightenment).

  • Mangi Tungi is also the site of the 108-feet tall statue of Jain Tirthankar Bhagwan Rishabhdev. This is the tallest monolithic Jain statue in the world, erected in 2016.

  • Before that 57-feet tall Gommateswar statue of Bahubali (Son of Lord Rishabhdev) at Sravan Belagola was the tallest single-rock Jain statue in the world.

About Lord Rishabhdev

  • He is the first Jain Tirthankara (spiritual teacher). He is also called Adi Nath.

  • He introduced the philosophy of Non-Violence.

  • His symbol or emblem is Bull.

  • He is considered as the founder of Ikshvaku dynasty to which Lord Rama belonged.


3.1  Political activities of Sir Chhotu Ram

  • He founded the Jat Sabha, followed by the launch of the Jat Gazette in 1915.

  • He joined the Congress in 1916. In 1920, he launched Zamindaran Party, which later became the Unionist Party in 1923 in alliance with Fazl-e-Hussain and Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan.

  • His party won the general elections of 1936 and formed a coalition government along with the Congress and Sikh Akali Dal. He became the Revenue Minister.

3.2 Reforms initiated by Sir Chhotu Ram

  • He conceived the Bhakra Dam project way back in 1923. He, along with the King of Bilaspur, signed the Bhakra Dam project.

  • He was considered as an agrarian reformer. Under him, various legislations were passed such as Punjab Land Revenue (Amendment) Act, 1929, Punjab Agricultural Produce Markets Act was passed in 1939 (Mandi Act), Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act, 1943.

  • For his work, the peasantry rewarded him with the titles of Deen-bandhu and Rahbar-e-Azam. Also, the British honoured him with a knighthood in 1937.

4. Bathukamma Festival

About Bathukamma

  • Bathukamma that means ‘Mother Goddess come Alive’ is a colourful floral festival of Telangana celebrated towards the end of monsoon.

  • Bathukamma is a beautiful flower stack of different unique seasonal flowers most of them with medicinal value, arranged in seven concentric layers in the shape of temple gopuram.

  • The final day of Bathukamma, known as Pedha or Saddula Bathukamma falls two days before Dussehra.

About Pochampalli Sarees

  • The art originated in 18th Century in Pochampally town of Telangana and is locally called as Chit-ku. The town is popularly known as the silk city of India.

  • These sarees are culturally popular for the Ikat styling and designs (geometrical) imprinted on this fabric.

  • The Poochampalli Ikat Sarees also have GI tag in their name.

October Art and Culture

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